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a) When following to a suit or when discarding in a suit, the relative height of a card is used to send signals

b) Signals are usually given with cards from two to nine

c) A signal can be fully interpreted from the bidding, from the cards seen on the dummy and from the cards held in your hand

d) It is sometimes necessary to wait until partner plays to the second round in a suit to fully understand a signal

e) It is not always appropriate to signal, especially with a strong defensive hand

f) It is not mandatory to follow your partner's signals when not suitable given the context of a hand

g) It is usually profitable to signal as much as possible against less experienced players

h) It is recommended to always signal on the opening lead

i) Types of defensive signals:

   - Attitude signal

   - Count signal

   - Preference signal

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